Department of Health. London: Department of Health; Horton R. Nurse-prescribing in the UK: right but also wrong. Dube G. Competing for the retail drug market, Statistics Canada, September Fox S. Revill J. Cancer patients turn to internet for cheap drugs. The Observer November 5. Flower R. Lifestyle drugs: pharmacology and the social agenda. Trends Pharmacological Sci. The direct-to-consumer advertising genie. Abuse D. Collapse, reported seizure - and an unexpected pill.
Lancet, ; , Hubbard WK. March 18, Related articles internet pharmacy cyber pharmacy virtual pharmacy. Access Statistics. Advantages of In Pharmacy vs Inte Presence of Inte Classification o Types of Interne Rating of Intern Regulation for I Verified Interne Tips on Choosing Finding an Inter This may be an evolutionary advantage in women of reproductive age, much like their ability to convert ALA Omega-3 to EPA Omega-3 better than the rest of us. But gut dysbiosis and statin use stop this from happening.
And virtually everyone these days has gut dysbiosis. As far as we know, there is little or no role for MK-7 in fetal development. The human body is ultra-efficient. There is very little duplication of function. It is naive to think that all we need is MK The other MK forms are not available in supplement form and can only come from fermented foods and fats of animals that have recently grazed on rapidly growing green grass.
Because they contain the most chlorophyll. Chlorophyll in green grass is processed by probiotic bacteria in the ruminating guts of grazing animals into MK forms. So cows eating dead hay may not produce K2 rich dairy products. You may have heard that there is a difference in absorption or biological effect between CoQ10 Ubiquinone vs Ubiquinol or Omega-3 ethyl ester vs triglyceride vs phospholipid forms. There is truth behind these notions. There are two forms isomers of MK MK-7 is always found in the trans form in nature and in foods.
Cis form of MK-7 is not found in nature and may not provide the same benefit. If you get your K2 from foods, then great — this does not apply to you. But if you get it from supplements, listen up. Not necessarily. In most cases, it is impossible to tell how much of the mcg is in the biologically active and beneficial trans form. Most of it is probably in the trans form.
So this hypothetical product may be providing you just 15 mcg of trans MK-7 and 85 mcg cis MK-7, instead of the mcg of usable K2 as claimed by the label. This is a bit of a bummer. But it may…if you ask them to test and share the results. Products that claim to be all trans because they are made from Natto, are, well, hoping it is all trans.
Natto-based K2 supplements on the market have very little to do with the dish Natto. They use a similar or the same bacteria for fermentation, but every thing else is different. Instead of soybeans, they start with soy protein concentrates. The soy protein fermentation process includes complicated manufacturing steps and the use of solvents. During this process, small deviations can influence the molecule structure and…voila! Cis MK There is one lab here in California and another in Norway that can test for the presence of cis MK Not surprisingly, it was and still is the most popular K2 supplement in America.
Only about a quarter of the MK-7 was in the preferred trans form. The label says mcg of MK Only The result was almost identical — this time, they found But their product is missing critical MK One that had an meaningful level of both MK-4 and trans MK But with no added K1.
My issue with the Life Extension product is no longer valid. The original content of this post remains for educational purposes. Vitamin K1 has been repeatedly shown to offer no benefit to your heart. Vitamin K1 is essential for proper blood coagulation. K1 has little or no role in proper calcium deposition. Most adults are not K1 deficient. Even consuming very small amounts of green leafy vegetables or vegetable oils can provide you with ample K1. Better yet, your body can recycle K1. You rarely, if ever, become deficient. So no need to supplement.
If you supplement with K1, serum levels reach a plateau at mcg. Doses of mcg per day may even contribute to periodontal disease. Vitamin K1 and K2 negate the effect of drugs like Coumadin or Warfarin. Actually the truth is the reverse. These anticoagulant drugs stop K1 recycling and so keep the blood very thin. Taking these drugs keep you in an artificially K1 and K2 deficient state. Anticoagulant drugs also take out some K2. There is evidence that people on anticoagulant drugs quickly develop arterial calcium deposits. Regardless, if your doctor deems it important for you to be on these drugs, adding K1 or K2 to the mix warrants a discussion with your doctor.
I regularly talk about the need to avoid vegetable seed oils and processed foods. Here is another reason: soybean and canola oils contain K1. When these oils are hydrogenated for use in processed foods, K1 gets converted to DHP dihydrophylloquinone , a substance of questionable impact. Yet another reason to go back to traditional fats like grass-fed butter. All said, having K1 in your K2 supplement is not critical because it increases risk a little without adding much in the way of benefits.
MK-7 has never been consumed in high doses in human history, unless you lived in eastern Japan and eat Natto. Japanese consume mcg of MK-7 per day due to Natto consumption. No other culture consumes that much MK So, a dose of mcg seems more than adequate. We consumed MK-4 regularly when we were hunter gatherers or even a century ago when we were not disgusted by the concept of eating organ meats like liver. Such a traditional diet would not have given you much more than to mcg MK-4 per day.
Some Japanese studies have used 45, mcg 45 mg of MK-4 daily dosage without major side effects. Supplements based on these Japanese pharmaceutical protocols should be taken with caution. Americans probably get far less than that.
Current research trends are with higher doses of MK Both and mcg doses of MK-7 appear promising and well-tolerated in supporting healthy arterial elasticity. US Pharmacopeia considers Vitamin K2 supplementation to be safe. This may be a bit pricey upfront, but it is a liquid MK-4 and each drop contains mcg of MK One bottle may last you a year. Their dosage is based on Japanese osteoporosis studies and is extreme. This is what I gave my kids when they were too young to swallow pills or eat solid foods.
Both forms in one pill. If you want to get your K2 from foods, the most palatable options are grass-fed butter, European hard cheeses, and poultry. Natto is for the brave — it has been described as a sticky, stretchy blend between gummy bears and snot. Fatty goose liver Foie gras is banned where I live! This misguided diet shift may have actually worsened the state of all our arteries and our bones.
Thank you Vin, another great article! Is there a certain dosage based on age that you recommend? Still do, actually. Addendum: that question was asked in It is early now and they each pop a capsule of the InnovixLabs softgel daily. Hi Kristi — yes, MK-4 will certainly aid in their calcium absorption. I am content with my kids getting a little MK-7 and MK-9 from cheese. Hi Vin — article as usual. What is the difference between MK 4 as menatetrenone aor as menaquinone? Also I have come across some articles that claim that a unknown?
Hi Mike — menaquinone is the family of long chain Vitamin K2. It includes all K2. Menatetrenone is MK Yes, very small quantities of K1 can technically be converted to K2. There is also a gene that encodes an enzymes to make the conversion. Still, we are not anywhere near as efficient at this conversion as other mammals especially grass eating ones with fermenting guts.
Hi, i am introducing my mother to your k2 brand. I saw the warning about blood thinning medications for mk1. She regularly uses excedrin with aspirin. Any cautions? Hi John — if the aspirin or any other heart meds are doctor recommended, then she should consult with her doctor. Having said that, aspirin has a different mechanism of action than anticoagulant medications. However, if her doctor has her on Rx blood thinning medications, like warfarin or coumadin, then taking K1 or K2 will reduce the effect of those drugs. If in doubt, check with doctor.
Thanks for the great post. Have you come across any info about which cheeses have the most K2? I always hear about Gouda, but was wondering if there are other varieties that are just as good or better? Jarlsberg is typically the highest. If you say MK4 is the more important one and the one concentrated in the brain, why do you recommend natto instead of cheese which has MK4, as listed in your table below? No harm at all in eating Natto if you can stomach it — better MK-7 than nothing at all. The science certainly shows a greater need for MK-4 over MK I think you need MK-4 more than MK I take both and eat cheese for the longer MKs like MK-8 and 9 that are not available as supplements.
So if you can find and enjoy foie gras, then, by all means go for the goose. If not, regular poultry is an so-so choice but it does not have anywhere near as much MK-4 as goose liver. The little bit of MK-4 in chicken is due to the synthetic menadione K3 that is mixed in with their feed. Chickens then convert some of the K3 to MK-4 K2.
I do not like the idea of relying on factory farmed chicken for anything, that is why I did not mention it in the article. Butter from grass-fed cows and egg yolks from pastured chicken are also so-so sources of MK-4 an make far better choices than factory farmed chicken. But then there is the decades-old misinformation and fat-phobia with butter and eggs.
Cheese is not a very good source of MK Everything is so-so when compared to goose liver. Bottom-line: if you can stomach Natto, go for it — plenty of MK-7 there. Otherwise, go with grass-fed butter and pastured egg yolks for MK And hard cheeses for MK-8 and 9. I am never opposed to supplementing when I think I am not getting enough of something easily, but not sure if we may need more in this case?leondumoulin.nl/language/superheroes/married-but-10-naughty.php
How to choose the right Vitamin K2 supplement - OmegaVia
Oh and by the way, we are going to try for another kid soon, so please include thoughts on how much beyond the diet outlined above my wife may soon need to take. And wish us luck! If you like cheese, look into European hard cheeses. Ummm, yeah, fermented cod liver oil FCLO. I am NOT a fan. Folate is important before conception and during the first trimester. Can you point me to it? I think its the only thing I have disagreed with you on, but I can be swayed. But I may be wrong. Can you revisit some of that research sometime? I love the evidence based research and blogs of yours.
Fermented cod liver oil is rancid. If it is made from cod, it is also polluted. Lately, some of it is not from cod and none of it is fermented. It is the only reason why it is better than regular fish oil. Most people do not get enough of either of these vitamins, so those doing the recommending are well-intentioned.
Unlike FCLO, most of the regular cod liver oils that you might see at Walmart or Walgreens is processed and purified like any other fish oil. These are not going to be rancid or polluted. If you find Cod liver oil made by well-known brands, the Vit A has been added separately after purification to make it appear like the real thing.
Not smart. But some people are starting to catch on. And D from the sun and supplements depending on the season. I get that. The results were posted on the website-but when I last checked they were removed due to I think Dr. Then they made the case that the D2 was fine and equivalent to D3. Now they admit there is no D2 and little D3 but there is a substance that has vitamin D properties. Thanks for the link. I read back through that again to refamiliarize myself with what had been said. I now remember coming away from what I read from you a bit convinced, but then reading much of what is on the Green Pastures site about the tests they run on their batches made me think that the downsides of FCLO were minimal, and that it did not contain many pollutants, at least according to their tests.
Do you mind giving a scan of a bunch of articles on their site and then commenting? Since they are the big dog in FCLO, I imagine you are already familiar with their practices, so I am guessing some of what you discussed in your FCLO article was a result of what you know about them. I would like to know your specific opinion based on what they are doing and saying these days.
If that is something you dont want to print publicly feel free to just take this to email. Thanks again for all you do! By the way, I think you know, but I have also been buying Omegavia on autoship for a couple of years now, so I definitely see a great purpose and value in your products. I am about to be trying the Innovix Magnesium and have gone through a couple of bottles of Omega 7 as well. Is it OK? Or perhaps only in the presence of a 5, IU D3 from Nutrigold? If one instead gets vitamin A from liver, does that mean a bit of liver everyday?
May be do the 10K a couple of times a week. To put things in perspective, traditional Inuit diet provides K per day. There is also a an alleged A to D ratio. A couple of times a week ought to do it. A and D are stored for long-term use. My suggestion is to get a LOT of summer time sun exposure and rely of D3 supplements during winter and spring.
If you do it right, you wont need D3 supplements during the fall, right thru December. Besides, sunshine has other benefits besides D3 — things like mood and re-setting circadian rhythms. Very critical. Ok thanks. I am definitely trying to find an amount of each of these important nutrients that I can control and feel that I, my wife, and kids are all getting enough of, without getting too much. My wife and I eat a pastured egg or two everyday. I try to get them to everyday, but sometimes unsuccessfully. I like the idea of that 10, IU Vit A, but it is also in soybean oil….
Vit A from eggs, liver infrequently… would have to trick kids into eating by putting in a burger or something , and a possible 10, IU supplement for both myself and kids 2. K2 from the Innovix blend. Looks near perfect 3. Vitamin D3 from 2, IU supplement and sun. And then Calcium… should I be supplementing at all? I only ask since it has been referred to in so many K2 and D3 articles. I have never supplemented with calcium, assuming I got enough in my raw milk. I think my wife, especially if she get pregnant, should be downing raw milk consistently.
The kids continue to drink some everyday. Sorry for another long email. I think its a great discussion to flush out, though! Thanks for the answers! Skip D3 pills in the summer. I just toss my kids in the pool during the middle of the day without sunscreen. In the winter, I use liquid D3, A, and K2 drops with my kids, may be a couple of times a week. But it all depends on their diet. I prefer to get it form food — meat and fish cooked bone-in and the rest of my calcium comes from green leafy veggies. I refuse to. I buy raw milk and drink some everyday. I make canary milk with it for diabetes control.
I would like to know of any potential issues you are referring to. I like to be well informed if possible on this. Hi Susan — the main issue I see is if the raw milk is not handled correctly and becomes contaminated. Pasteurization is designed to kill pathogens.
Without that process, there is always a possibility of contamination. From a larger purely opinion here perspective, no other species on the planet consumes the milk of another species, especially as adults. Apparently A2 cow milk is almost identical to Mothers milk. Will your K2 help brain degenerative diseases? I have MS, primary lessons in brain. Right brain shrinkage, right to left not communicating, besides the normal pain, spasms, memory loss, unbalance, and now early dementia. I read somewhere K2 would help. I also took test and was told MTHFR mutation taking 15 mg Meryl folate prescribed by doc along with allele musfunctions.
Any advice appreciated. I take a lot of recommended supplements. Hi Julia — your situation sounds like it is a lot for anyone to handle. Any one of those symptoms would be difficult, let alone the combination! My best bet would be to work with an Integrative Medicine MD in your area. Make sure you are getting the other B vitamins, D, and glutathione. My wife and I were discussing how much vitamin A for her to shoot for in her diet or supplementation before and during the hopeful upcoming pregnancy.
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I was prepared to have her incorporate liver, or maybe dessicated liver, or the 10, IU pill we discussed, on top of her routinely eating an egg or two a day. But she has been doing reading such as here:. And quite a few other sites that say for pregnant women to steer clear of extra vitamin A. Of course that link also says things like.
You can take in as many carotenoids as you want, however, from fruits and vegetables. So since that writer thinks that the fortify cereal with Retinol versions of Vitamin A, I find the whole thing suspect. But there are plenty of similar articles out there. Hi John — there is a lot of Vit A misinformation and phobia out there. The risk with both A and D3 is the consumption one without the other.
Or in the absence of K2. If she decides to take Vit A, check with her OB first. Hello Vin, I have always read, that your body etc. But K2 MK-7 has a long shelve life, and does not need to be taken as often. About every 3 days! Many people that take Mk-7 get a fast heart beat, no matter the small amount they take, and some get a fast heart beat, and some cannot take it before bed time cause it keeps them awake. And some people do not have any problem.
That said, I have Osteoporosis. I do take allot of vitamins and herbs.. Total of mcg of K2 per capsule. I was taking Thorne liquid K2 Mk I was taking 5 drops its says take 15!! I do not want to take Thorne anymore!! But yours seems to not have enough K2 Mk-4, and not sure if I should yours twice aday, , cause then I think it would be too much Mk I do Not want a fast heart beat.
How to choose the right Vitamin K2 supplement
What are your thoughts on this? Can you tell me what type of vitamin A. HI Annie — there is no basis in science for telling someone to take MK-4 every 5 hours. This unscientific recommendation is based on the short half-life. But half-life is very deceiving because it only looks at plasma concentration. MK-4 is rapidly stored in select tissues in the body and cleared from the blood. I address this in the article above. So once a day should be plenty. The best source of Vitamin A is liver.
Grass fed butter, heavy cream and eggs have small quantities as well. I buy organic pasture soy free eggs, organic grass fed butter. But I mainly use organic coconut oil. I think I threw it out, or gave it to someone.! Maybe I should buy it again, and give it another try. I also do not like the fish in it. Prop 65 is a brilliantly ridiculous law.
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I had to study it when I was in college back in the s. It is the law in California. If a product contains any substance known to the state of California to cause cancer or reproductive harm, it must clearly say so. Sounds good, right? But the safety cut off level is often at 5th percentile of established safety standards. Prop 65 says a product must have the warning if it has more than 0. This is way, way below any reasonable, scientific standard of safety. Because a serving of healthy organic spinach has 5 micrograms! Same for dozens of other veggies — broccoli, brussels sprouts, avocados, cucumbers and I could go on.
Nuts, meats, fruits…all. The lawyers who wrote and pushed Prop 65 into law have been suing companies for breaking the law and extracting huge settlements. This is called a shakedown settlement. Guess what? Not because there is lead or mercury or arsenic. I have access to a lab and I can vouch for the purity. But most adults especially those who take D3 supplements need more than 10, IU per day. Prop 65 has fed into Vit A phobia and Vit A deficiency can cause birth defects. Hi Vin, That is very interesting, to say the least. Although I have looked through the internet, but have not been able to find anything else about this type of article!
What I have read is, Prop 65 started out about Cleaning up the water etc. What a surprise.. Any thoughts? Homegoods which is owned my TJ Maxx, and Marshalls, does not have any signs up about prop 65, and there Homegoods store is filled with dinnerware, cookware, and everything. No signs.. I never heard of prop 65 till about two years ago.. There is so much controversy now about health. The food we eat, and on those websites there is allot of talk about prop 65, and what type of dinnerware passes the tests, of low iron, and cadmium. It is a concern to me, as there is so much pollution in the air, I think if we can help our selfs, every little bit helps.
Although I think its insane to put vitamin A in the same category as street drugs! Who really can believe that!! As a teenager I can remember taking 25,, or was it 50, iu of A everyday. I wanted my skin to be perfect , and it was.. My question was, what type of vitamin A to take now.
Its confusing when there are so many different types of A?? Hi Annie — I prefer to take one of the fish-liver-derived Vitamin A. If I eat liver, I skip a lot of my supplements for a few days. It is not detailed, but I think we needed to make some changes in the chemicals that where being used in large factories that caused our air to be unhealthy, and what is in our food etc. As far as our food goes, with the new labeling, we can now make better choices of we choose to.
From what I know, allot of these laws have been carried over to other states.. Hi Annie — as with many of these laws, I think the original intent was good. Makes you wonder why.
Do you know how much Soy is in this? Hi Annie — it has small amounts of soybean oil in it as a carrier. You might get a couple of mg of Omega-6 from it. One small McDonalds french fry serving will get you couple thousand mg of Omega-6 from soybean oil. If you eat out at a restaurant, virtually everything is cooked in soybean oil. I have never cooked so much in my life, now I know what is in my food..
Hi Vin, I just got the Innovix Labs Vitamin K2 supplement and I am wondering if my wife who has just got pregnant should take this supplement as well as it has a much higher dosage than the recommended. Hi Christian — the dosage is certainly not higher than recommended — even kids can tolerate the recommended dosage.
Innovix K2 has mcg of MK No known side effects even at 90X higher dosage. However, I would suggest discussing the matter with her OB before starting any new supplements. Hi Vin. I have the same concern as Christian. My OB recommended a normal Prenatal, but I know the dosages of the many supplements are not correctly, therefore I decided individual supplements with the correct dosages of Omega 3, Calcium, Magnesium etc… I am 5 weeks pregnant and would like to know if you recommend Innovix Labs Vitamin K2 1 capsule a day or would be better take a K2 MK7 supplement 80 mg daily?
Did your wife take the Full Spectrum Vitamin K2? Thanks in advance. Hi Laura — since you are pregnant and under active care of your OB, all decisions must be made after consulting with your OB. But the science says pregnancy weeks 5 to 12 are when the developing baby needs Vitamin K2 the most for teeth and facial bone development — good teeth and good looking face with wide jaws to accommodate all teeth. This does not mean that the baby does not need K2 later…but this is the time when they need K2 for the development process I mentioned.
I know it is hard to believe, but the adult teeth are already there. Tiny but there. As I state in the article above, MK-7 is useless for the developing baby. MK-7 is good for adults concerned about calcified arteries, but developing babies need MK The full spectrum K2 was not available when my wife was pregnant. It was her craving.
Thanks a lot Vin. Very helpful answer!! Hopefully the Full Spectrum K2 is not a high dosage for pregnancy. I am ordering right away through Amazon. For context, a mammogram is only 0. People exposed to rads start to show signs of ARS , which include fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and seizures — and the higher the dose, the more likely death is to occur. Generally speaking, anything over rads is considered a lethal dose. Here are five of the most notable incidents. After an injury in , Byers was prescribed a tonic called Radithor in the hopes it would ease his pain and improve his health.
Over the next two years, Byers guzzled an estimated 14, bottles of Radithor, causing his jaw, teeth, and parts of his skull to dissolve.
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After a protracted illness , Byers died of radiation sickness in March at the age of Internationally renowned chemist and physicist Marie Curie is famous for discovering the radioactive elements polonium and radium, along with being the first woman to snag the Nobel prize in physics and chemistry. Unfortunately, the habit exposed Curie to high levels of ionizing radiation. Curie was exposed to such a large dose of radiation, in fact, that her personal effects are still radioactive and will remain so for another years.
After Marie Curie discovered it in , radium started appearing everywhere.
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